Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa is a term for a group of eye diseases that can lead to loss of sight. What they have in common is a specific coloring of the retina – a bundle of tissue at the back of your eye. Ccells in the retina called photoreceptors don’t work the way they’re supposed to, and over time, you lose your sight.

It’s a rare disorder that’s passed from parent to child.

Retinitis pigmentosa usually starts in childhood. But exactly when it starts and how quickly it gets worse varies from person to person. Most people with retinitis pigmentosa lose much of their sight by early adulthood.

Typical symtpoms include following:

  • loss of night vision
  • gradual loss of peripheral vision (also known as „tunnel vision“)
  • problems with color vision
  • loss of central vision

Visit your eye doctor if having any of these symptoms. If you or anyone in your family is diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa, all family members should go to the eye doctor for screening.

Retinitis Pigmentosa (example)

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes complication that affects eyes. It’s caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).

At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can cause blindness.

The condition can develop in anyone who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar is, the more likely you are to develop this eye complication.

Diabetic retinopathy involves the abnormal growth of blood vessels in the retina. Complications can lead to serious vision problems such as vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, glaucoma, early cataract development nad blindness.

If your macula gets involved, your eye vision decreases gradually, if not treated properly.

There are multiple examinations to diagnose a diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema. Most likely it is diagnosed by optical coherence tomography and fluorescence angiography.

The treatment depends on the stage of the disease. As sooner the treatment starts, the better the outcome. Ask your eye doctor about what treatment/ procedure is best for you.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Retinal vascular occlusion

The vascular system includes blood vessels called arteries and veins, which transport blood throughout your body, including your eyes. Your retina requires a constant supply of blood to make sure your cells get enough nutrients and oxygen. However, it’s possible for one of the vessels carrying blood to or from the retina to become blocked or to have a blood clot. This is called an occlusion.

  • Retinal artery occlusion is a blockage of one of the retinal arteries, which are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to your retina.
  • Retinal vein occlusion is blockage of one of your retinal veins, which are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to your heart.

Blockages in your main vein or artery are often more serious than blockages in your branch veins or arteries.

The primary symptom of retinal vascular occlusion is a sudden change in vision. This could include blurry vision, or a partial or complete loss of vision.

The vision symptoms usually only occur in one eye. Physical pain is not a symptom of retinal vascular occlusion.

The changes in eyesight could be short term or permanent, depending on how quickly you seek treatment and if you have other health conditions. You should make an appointment with your eye doctor, right away if you experience any changes in your vision.

Your eye doctor will perform a comprehensive exam to diagnose retinal vascular occlusion (such as optical coherence tomographie or fluorescence angiography).

The treatment depends on how fast you visit your eye doctor. As sooner the treatment starts, the better the outcome. Ask your eye doctor about what treatment/ procedure is best for you.

Retinal vein occlusion

Retinal artery occlusion

Retinal tumours

As all tumours, also retinal tumours could be benign or malignant. Your eye doctor can detect retinal tumours by doing a funduscopic examination. A variety of tumours can be found. Further examinations are mostly required, such a ultrasound, fluorescence angiography or optical coherence tomography. It is known that some tumours are caused by uv- light.

Retinal melanoma